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CHART: psychiatrist vs psychologist vs social worker vs psychotherapist

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Ontario

Psychiatrist/MD

Registered Social Services Worker
Designation
Psychiatrist
Designation
Psychiatrist
Registered Social Services Worker
Designation
Psychiatrist
Designation
Psychiatrist
Registered Social Services Worker
Designation
Psychiatrist
Designation
Psychiatrist
Designation
Psychiatrist
Education
Medical degree
Training hours
5 year residency
Regulated
Yes
Associations
Ontario Psychiatric Association (OPA)
Diagnose
Yes
Rx
Yes
Cost/sn
NA
Coverage likelihood
High (OHIP)
What to expect
Prescribes medication, may offer psychotherapy

Psychologist

Designation
Psychologist
Education
PhD
Training hours
4 year residency + 1 year supervision
Regulated
Yes
Diagnose
Yes
Rx
No
Cost/sn
$200 - $300
Coverage likelihood
Medium - high
What to expect
May offer psychotherapy or counselling therapy
Designation
Psychological Associate
Education
Master's
Training hours
6,000 hours supervised work
Regulated
Yes
Diagnose
Yes
Rx
No
Cost/sn
$125 +
Coverage likelihood
Medium
What to expect
May offer psychotherapy or counselling therapy

Social Worker

Registered Social Services Worker
Designation
Registered Social Services Worker (RSSW)
Education
College Diploma
Training hours
Demonstrated experience in social work within 5 years of application
Regulated
Yes
Diagnose
No
Rx
No
Cost/sn
$100 - $150
Coverage likelihood
Medium
What to expect
May offer counselling, community services and social support programs
Registered Social Worker
Designation
Registered Social Worker (RSW)
Education
Bachelor's degree
Training hours
Demonstrated experience in social work within 5 years of application
Regulated
Yes
Diagnose
No
Rx
No
Cost/sn
$50 - $90 +
Coverage likelihood
Medium - high
What to expect
May offer counselling or psychotherapy (if registered)
Masters of Social Work
Designation
Masters of Social Work (MSW)
Education
Master's degree
Training hours
Up to 3 months + ongoing training (eg psychotherapy)
Regulated
Yes
Diagnose
No
Rx
No
Cost/sn
$50 - $90 +
Coverage likelihood
Medium - high
What to expect
May offer counselling or psychotherapy (if registered)

Counsellors and psychotherapists

Certified Canadian Counsellor (C.C.C.) Federal
Designation
Certified Canadian Counsellor (C.C.C.) Federal
Education
Master's or PhD
Training hours
Based on graduation date**
<5 years: 150 direct client hours w/ practicum placement
5+ years: 800 direct client hours w/in last 5 yrs
Regulated
No
Diagnose
Yes
Rx
No
Cost/sn
$50 - $200+
Coverage likelihood
Medium-low
What to expect
Array of talk therapy and other therapy or counselling methods and modalities.
Psychotherapist
Designation
Psychotherapist
Education
Master's degree or  "demonstrated competency"
Training hours
750 hours
Regulated
Yes
Diagnose
No
Rx
No
Cost/sn
$50 - $200+
Coverage likelihood
Medium - high
What to expect
Offers psychotherapy
Psychiatry
Psychology
Social Work
Counselling therapy and psychotherapy
Designation
Psychiatrist
Psychologist
Psychological Associate
Registered Social Services Worker (RSSW)
Registered Social Worker (RSW)
Masters of Social Work (MSW)
Certified Canadian Counsellor (C.C.C.)
Federal
Registered Psychotherapist (RP)
Education
Medical degree
PhD
Psychiatrist/MD
College Diploma
Bachelor's degree
Bachelor's degree
Master's or PhD
Master's degree or  "demonstrated competency"
Training hours
5 year residency
4 year residency + 1 year supervision
6,000 hours supervised work
Demonstrated experience in social work within 5 years of application
Demonstrated experience in social work within 5 years of application
Up to 3 months + ongoing training (eg psychotherapy)
Based on graduation date**
<5 years: 150 direct client hours w/ practicum placement
5+ years: 800 direct client hours w/in last 5 yrs
Exam + 450 direct client hours + 100 hours clinical supervision*
Regulated
Training hours
5 year residency
4 year residency + 1 year supervision
6,000 hours supervised work
Demonstrated experience in social work within 5 years of application
Demonstrated experience in social work within 5 years of application
Up to 3 months + ongoing training (eg psychotherapy)
Based on graduation date**
<5 years: 150 direct client hours w/ practicum placement
5+ years: 800 direct client hours w/in last 5 yrs
Exam + 450 direct client hours + 100 hours clinical supervision*
Regulated
Diagnose
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Diagnose
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Rx
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Cost/sn
NA
$200 - $300
$125+
$100 - $150
$50 - $90 +
$50 - $90 +
$50 - $200+
$50 - $200+
Coverage likelihood
High (OHIP)
Medium - High
Medium
Medium
Medium - High
Medium - High
Medium - Low
Medium - High
What to expect
Prescribes medication, may offer psychotherapy
May offer psychotherapy or counselling therapy
May offer psychotherapy or counselling therapy
May offer counselling, community services and social support programs
May offer counselling or psychotherapy (if registered)
May offer counselling or psychotherapy (if registered)
Array of talk therapy and other therapy or counselling methods and modalities.
Offers psychotherapy

British Columbia

Psychiatry
Psychology
Social Work
Counselling therapy and psychotherapy
Designation
Psychiatrist
Psychologist
Psychological Associate
Registered Social Worker (RSW)
Master's of Social Work (MSW)
Registered Clinical Social Worker (RCSW)
Certified Canadian Counsellor (C.C.C.)
Federal
Registered Clinical Counsellor (RCC)
Counselling Therapist
Education
Medical degree
PhD
Master's degree
Bachelor's degree
Master's degree
Master's degree + additional clinical certifications
Master's or PhD
Master's degree
NA
Training hours
5 year residency
600 hours practica + 1,600 internship
1 year for post-masters supervised internship and 3 years supervised practice
Provincial exams and some practical experience
Provincial exams and some practical experience
Provincial exams and some practical experience
Based on graduation date**
<5 years: 150 direct client hours w/ practicum placement
5+ years: 800 direct client hours w/in last 5 yrs
100 hours of clinical supervision
NA
Regulated
In progress
Training hours
5 year residency
600 hours practica + 1,600 internship
1 year for post-masters supervised internship and 3 years supervised practice
Provincial exams and some practical experience
Provincial exams and some practical experience
Provincial exams and some practical experience
Based on graduation date**
<5 years: 150 direct client hours w/ practicum placement
5+ years: 800 direct client hours w/in last 5 yrs
100 hours of clinical supervision
NA
Regulated
In progress
Diagnose
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Diagnose
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Rx
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Cost/sn
NA
$200 - $300
$125+
$50 - $90 +
$50 - $90 +
$50 - $90 +
$50 - $200+
$120 - $175
NA
Coverage likelihood
High (MSP)
Medium - High
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium - Low
Medium
NA
What to expect
"Dr. referral
medical treatment of mental diseases with a prescription"
May offer psychotherapy or counselling therapy
May offer psychotherapy or counselling therapy
May offer psychotherapy or counselling therapy
May offer counselling or therapy
May offer counselling or therapy
Array of talk therapy and other therapy or counselling methods and modalities.
Array of talk therapy and other therapy or counselling methods and modalities.
TBD

Psychiatrist/MD

Registered Social Services Worker
Designation
Psychiatrist
Designation
Psychiatrist
Registered Social Services Worker
Designation
Psychiatrist
Designation
Psychiatrist
Registered Social Services Worker
Designation
Psychiatrist
Designation
Psychiatrist
Designation
Psychiatrist
Education
Medical degree
Training hours
5 year residency
Regulated
Yes
Diagnose
Yes
Rx
Yes
Cost/sn
NA
Coverage likelihood
High (MSP)
What to expect
Dr. referral medical treatment of mental diseases with a prescription

Psychologist

Designation
Psychologist
Education
PhD
Training hours
600 hours practica + 1,600 internshp
Regulated
Yes
Diagnose
Yes
Rx
No
Cost/sn
$200 - $300
Coverage likelihood
Medium - high
What to expect
May offer psychotherapy or counselling therapy
Designation
Psychological Associate
Education
Master's degree
Training hours
1 year for post-masters supervised internship and 3 years supervised practice
Regulated
Yes
Diagnose
Yes
Rx
No
Cost/sn
$125+
Coverage likelihood
Medium
What to expect
May offer psychotherapy or counselling therapy

Social Worker

Registered Social Worker (RSW)
Designation
Registered Social Worker (RSW)
Education
Bachelor's degree
Training hours
Provincial exams and some practical experience
Regulated
Yes
Diagnose
No
Rx
No
Cost/sn
$50 - $90 +
Coverage likelihood
Medium
What to expect
May offer psychotherapy or counselling therapy
Master's of Social Work (MSW)
Designation
Master's of Social Work (MSW)
Education
Master's degree
Training hours
Provincial exams and some practical experience
Regulated
Yes
Diagnose
No
Rx
No
Cost/sn
$50 - $90 +
Coverage likelihood
Medium
What to expect
May offer counselling or therapy
Registered Clinical Social Worker (RCSW)
Designation
Registered Clinical Social Worker (RCSW)
Education
Master's degree + additional clinical certifications
Training hours
Provincial exams and some practical experience
Regulated
Yes
Diagnose
Yes
Rx
No
Cost/sn
$50 - $90 +
Coverage likelihood
Medium
What to expect
May offer counselling or therapy

Counsellors and psychotherapists

Certified Canadian Counsellor
Designation
Certified Canadian Counsellor (C.C.C.) Federal
Education
Master's or PhD
Training hours
Based on graduation date**
<5 years: 150 direct client hours w/ practicum placement
5+ years: 800 direct client hours w/in last 5 yrs
Regulated
No
Diagnose
Yes
Rx
No
Cost/sn
$50 - $200+
Coverage likelihood
Medium-low
What to expect
Array of talk therapy and other therapy or counselling methods and modalities.
Registered Clinical Counsellor
Designation
Registered Clinical Counsellor (RCC)
Education
Master's degree
Training hours
100 hours of clinical supervision
Regulated
No
Diagnose
No
Rx
No
Cost/sn
$120 - $175
Coverage likelihood
Medium
What to expect
Array of talk therapy and other therapy or counselling methods and modalities.
Counselling Therapist
Designation
Counselling Therapist
Education
NA
Training hours
NA
Regulated
In progress
Regulatory body
NA
Diagnose
No
Rx
No
Cost/sn
NA
Coverage likelihood
NA
What to expect
TBD

Alberta

Psychiatry
Psychology
Social Work
Counselling therapy and psychotherapy
Designation
Psychiatrist
Psychologist
Registered Social Worker
Registered Clinical Social Worker (RCSW)
Certified Canadian Counsellor (C.C.C.)
Federal
Provisional Psychologist
Education
Medical degree
Master's degree or PhD
Diploma, Bachelor's or Master's Degree
Master's degree and additional education
Master's or PhD
Master's
Training hours
5 year residency
1 year (1,600 hours) post-masters
Varied: up to 400 hours
1,600 hours supervised practice + 100 hours clinical supervision
Based on graduation date**
<5 years: 150 direct client hours w/ practicum placement
5+ years: 800 direct client hours w/in last 5 yrs
1600 supervised hours
Regulated
Training hours
5 year residency
1 year (1,600 hours) post-masters
Varied: up to 400 hours
1,600 hours supervised practice + 100 hours clinical supervision
Based on graduation date**
<5 years: 150 direct client hours w/ practicum placement
5+ years: 800 direct client hours w/in last 5 yrs
1600 supervised hours
Regulated
Diagnose
Yes
Yes
No
TBD
No
No
Diagnose
Yes
Yes
No
TBD
No
No
Rx
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Cost / sn
NA
$200 - $300
$50 - $90 +
$50 - $90 +
$50 - $200+
NA
Coverage likelihood
High (AHCIP)
Medium - high
Medium
Medium
Medium - low
NA
What to expect
Dr. referral
medical treatment of mental diseases with a prescription
May offer psychotherapy or counselling therapy
May offer psychotherapy or counselling therapy
May offer counselling or therapy
Array of talk therapy and other therapy or counselling methods and modalities.
Psychotherapy

Psychiatrist/MD

Registered Social Services Worker
Designation
Psychiatrist
Designation
Psychiatrist
Registered Social Services Worker
Designation
Psychiatrist
Designation
Psychiatrist
Registered Social Services Worker
Designation
Psychiatrist
Designation
Psychiatrist
Designation
Psychiatrist
Education
Medical degree
Training hours
5 year residency
Regulated
Yes
Diagnose
Yes
Rx
Yes
Cost/sn
NA
Coverage likelihood
High (AHCIP)
What to expect
Dr. referral medical treatment of mental diseases with a prescription

Psychologist

Designation
Psychologist
Education
Master's degree or PhD
Training hours
1 year (1,600 hours) post-masters
Regulated
Yes
Diagnose
Yes
Rx
No
Cost/sn
$200 - $300
Coverage likelihood
Medium - high
What to expect
May offer psychotherapy or counselling therapy

Social Worker

Registered Social Worker
Designation
Registered Social Worker
Education
Diploma, Bachelor's or Master's Degree
Training hours
Varied: up to 400 hours
Regulated
Yes
Diagnose
No
Rx
No
Cost/sn
$50 - $90 +
Coverage likelihood
Medium
What to expect
May offer psychotherapy or counselling therapy
Registered Clinical Social Worker (RCSW)
Designation
Registered Clinical Social Worker (RCSW)
Education
Master's degree and additional education
Training hours
1,600 hours supervised practice + 100 hours clinical supervision
Regulated
Yes
Diagnose
TBD
Rx
No
Cost/sn
$50 - $90 +
Coverage likelihood
Medium
What to expect
May offer counselling or therapy

Counsellors and psychotherapists

Certified Canadian Counsellor (C.C.C.) Federal
Designation
Certified Canadian Counsellor (C.C.C.) Federal
Education
Master's or PhD
Training hours
Based on graduation date**
<5 years: 150 direct client hours w/ practicum placement
5+ years: 800 direct client hours w/in last 5 yrs
Regulated
No
Diagnose
Yes
Rx
No
Cost/sn
$50 - $200+
Coverage likelihood
Medium-low
What to expect
Array of talk therapy and other therapy or counselling methods and modalities.
Psychotherapist
Designation
Psychotherapist
Education
Master's
Training hours
1600 supervised hours
Regulated
Yes
Diagnose
No
Rx
No
Cost/sn
NA
Coverage likelihood
MA
What to expect
Psychotherapy

* Until the RP requirements are complete, qualifying members of the College of Registered Psychotherapists of Ontario (CRPO) can use the titles of Registered Psychotherapist (Qualifying) or RP (Qualifying). Registered Psychotherapists (RP) are permitted by the CRPO to practice independently only once they have completed 1,000 direct client contact hours and 150 hours of clinical supervision.
** The Canadian Certified Counsellor (C.C.C.) designation with the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association (CCPA) has two pathways. Pathway one is for new professionals who completed their graduate degree (master's or PhD) under fives years ago. Pathway two is for experienced practitioners who completed their graduate degree over five years ago.

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